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Neurology Animation Library

Aging and Dementia

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Animated video

Also called primary degenerative dementia. A neurologic disease that is characterized by confusion, memory loss, disorientation, speech disturbances, and other cognitive impairment. The symptoms progress with age.

Dopamine
Animated video

A neurotransmitter of the CNS that acts to prevent rigidly, tremors, and other effects on movement.

ALS, PLS, and Other Motor Neuron Disorders

ALS
Animated video

A degenerative disease of both the upper and lower neurons. Loss of voluntary muscle movement and coordination develop. Over time, muscle weakness and spasticity develop.

Motor Nerve Fiber
Animated video

A fiber that carries motor impulses from the brain to the body's muscle for contraction.

Motor Neuron
Animated video

A nerve cell that transmits impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscle fibers.

PET/CT Scanner
Animated video

A PET/CT Scanner merges both PET and CT capabilities into one machine to identify abnormal tissue. These scanners have respiratory gating capabilities, adding detail to areas that are subject to motion, such as the heart and lungs.

Diagnostic Tests

CT Scan
Animated video

CT Scanning is a non-invasive technology that takes cross-sectional images of the internal organs to detect any abnormalities that may not show up on an ordinary x-ray.

Electromyography (EMG)
Animated video

An EMG tests muscle activity. A needle records electrical activity in the muscle as the patient relaxes then contracts the muscle.

MRI
Animated video

A machine imposes magnetic energy on spinning atoms. The atoms then emit energy, which is translated into image form.

Myelogram
Animated video

An x-ray study that uses an injection of a dye or contrast material into the spinal canal to allow careful evaluation of the spinal canal and nerve roots.

Electrodiagnostic Testing
Animated video

Electrodiagnostic testing evaluates muscle symptoms that may result from injury or disease to either nerves or muscles in the body. Symptoms can include muscle pain, wekaness, or numbness.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy
Animated video

Neurons normally impulses up to 80 times/second. During a seizure, that rate can increase to 500 times/second. This may result in blackouts and involuntary movements.

General Neurology

Autonomic Nervous System
Animated video

Part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.

Axon
Animated video

The elongated extension of a neuron, or never cell, that conducts an action potential.

Brain
Animated video

The "control center" of the body; performs complex integrative functions, such as thought and memory, and controls voluntary activities.

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Animated video

One of two sections comprising the nervous system. The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, and processes information to and from the peripheral nervous system. It controls all voluntary and involuntary actions.

Cerebellum
Animated video

The posterior portion of the brain located below and behind the cerebrum.

Cerebral Hemisphere
Animated video

The cerebrum is divided into two functionality different paired structures; the right hemisphere and left hemisphere. Each hemisphere has an outer layer of gray matter (cerebral cortex) that surrounds an inner layer of white matter.

Cerebrum
Animated video

Largest and uppermost part of the brain; consists of two hemispheres that are further divided into four lobes.

Cranial Nerves
Animated video

Twelve pairs of nerves that originate at the base of the brain and emerge from openings in the skull. These nerves are responsible for smell, vision, facial expression, taste, and hearing, to name a few.

Dura (dura mater)
Animated video

The outermost of three membranes that surround the spinal cord; the dura mater, the pia mater, and the arachnoid.

Medulla Oblongata
Animated video

The lower half of the brainstem, which is a continuous with the spinal cord. This structure controls the involuntary body functions, such as heart beat, blood pressure, and breathing.

Nerve
Animated video

Fibers that carry electrical impulses to or from the brain or spinal cord.

Nerve Impulse
Animated video

A signal that travels along nerve fibers to communicate with specific tissues of the body.

Nervous System
Animated video

A signal that travels along nerve fibers to communicate with specific tissues of the body.

Nervous System Function
Animated video

Consists of vast network of specialized tissue including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which connect and control all the organs in the body.

Neural Tissue
Animated video

Specialized form of tissue responsible for electric signaling from one part of the body to another. A large majority of this tissue is concentrated in the brain and spinal cord.

Headache and Facial Pain

Migraine Headache
Animated video

Occurs when blood vessels in the brain dilate and strech, causing the vessels to widen and then narrow rapidly sending pain signals to the brain.

Trigeminal Nerve
Animated video

The fifth cranial nerve; carries sensory information from the face and has motor control over several muscles of mastication.

Movement Disorder

Neuromuscular Junction
Neuromuscular Junction

Where a nerve ending meets with muscle tissue. Signals for muscle contraction are communicated by chemicals that are transferred fro the nerve ending to the muscle.

Parkinson's Disease
Animated video

Parkinson's Disease results from the degeneration of the area of the brain responsible for muscle movements, specifically, the pigmented neurons located in the substantia nigra in the midbrain.

Multiple Sclerosis

Demyelination
Demyelination

The progress destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons in both the CNS and PNS. These leads to a loss of sensation and motor control of the neuron.

Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis

An autoimmune disorder in which the body's own immune system attacks and destroys the protective myelin coating, or myelin sheath, in various places along the central nervous system (demyelination).

Myelin
Myelin

An insulating sheath around an axon that significantly increases conduction rate of action potentials.

Myelin (damaged)
Myelin (damaged)

Damage to the myelin sheath of an axon can result in an inhibition of the conduction of action potentials.

Neuromuscular Diseases

Motor End Plate
Animated video

The flattened synaptic end of a motor neuron that transmits impulses to muscle fibers.

Schwann Cell
Animated video

Neurolemma cell; these cells form a sheath around axons in the peripheral nervous system.

Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathies

Diabetic Neuropathy
Animated video

Develops when the nervous system is damaged due to an increase in blood glucose. Usually occurs in peripheral nerves such as in the leg.

Parasympathetic Division
Animated video

The part of the autonomic nervous system, common referred to as the "rest and digest" portion, responsible for energy conservation and regular body functions such as salivation and urination.

Peripheral Nervous System
Animated video

The motor and sensory nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.

Sensory Neuron
Animated video

A nerve cell that transmits sensory impulses from body to the spinal cord and brain.

Sympathetic Division
Animated video

The part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the "fight or flight" excitatory response. For example in preparation for heightened activity, your body releases adrenaline which speeds up your heart rate.

Stroke

Aneurysm
Stroke

An aneurysm is a weakening and localized dilation in the wall of a blood vessel.

Atherosclerosis
Stroke

Atherosclerosis is the formation of yellowish plaques of cholesterol and other lips along the arterial wall.

Blood Clot
Stroke

A blood clot is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, and liquid plasma.

Myocardial Infarction
Stroke

Heart attack: A blocked coronary artery may cause muscle cells to die from lack of oxygen creating a non-functional area known as an infarct.

Stroke
Stroke

Stroke is an interruption in the blood supply to the brain due to a blockage or rupture causes cells to die from lack of oxygen.

Thrombus
Thrombus

A thrombus is a blood clot with fibrous strands that forms in a vessel. It may break off and travel through the circulatory system, eventually causing a stoppage of blood flow.